||Under typical Chinese wintry rural conditions, dominating individual coal heating would emit lots of the fine fraction of ambient aerosol exclusively including carbonaceous particulate matter. In this study, a specified drop tube furnace system is employed to simulate experimentally particle matter emitted during individual coal combustion. Emphatically, the effects of coal types, oxygen concentration and combustion ambient on the formation characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in the flue gas were discussed. It was found that the fraction of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the flue gas produced by bituminous coal combustion was lower than that of lignite. Meanwhile, with the increase of oxygen concentration, the production of OC and EC decreased, but the sensitivity of EC to oxygen concentration was higher than that of OC, which indicated that the formation mechanism of OC and EC is extremely different. Noticeable, the Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) of methanol-soluble organic carbon (MSOC) is higher than that of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), which indicates that a large amount of methanol-soluble but water-insoluble brown carbon has strong light absorption capacity between 330 nm and 550 nm, and its light absorption capacity tends to be in the short-wave region. The mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of brown carbon produced by coal combustion (0.1–1 m 2 /gC) is similar to that of atmospheric aerosol (0.3–1.8 m 2 /gC), which indicates that the contribution of brown carbon emitted from coal combustion to the light absorption capacity of atmospheric aerosol should not be underestimated.